The China Study - Complete References
1. Li J-Y, Liu B-Q, Li G-Y, et al. "Atlas of cancer mortality in the People's Republic of China. Anaid for cancer control and research." Int. J. Epid. 10 (1981): 127–133.
2. Higginson J. "Present trends in cancer epidemiology." Proc. Can. Cancer Conf. 8 (1969):40–75.
3. Wynder EL, and Gori GB. "Contribution of the environment to cancer incidence: an epidemiologic exercise." J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 58 (1977): 825–832.
4. Doll R, and Peto R. "The causes of cancer: Quantitative estimates of avoidable risks of cancer in the Unites States today." J Natl Cancer Inst 66 (1981): 1192–1265.
5. Fagin D. News release. "Breast cancer cause still elusive study: no clear link between pollution,breast cancer on LI." August 6, 2002. Newsday.com. Accessed at http://www.newsday.com/news/local/longisland/ny-licanc062811887aug06.story?coll=ny%2Dtop%2Dheadlines
6. There were 82 mortality rates, but about a third of these rates were duplicates of the samedisease for different aged people.
7. Calorie intake in China is for a 65 kg adult male doing "light physical work." Comparabledata for the American male is adjusted for a body weight of 65 kg.
8. SerVaas C. "Diets that protected against cancers in China." The Saturday Evening Post October1990: 26–28.
9. All the available disease mortality rates were arranged in a matrix so that it was possible to readily determine the relationship of each rate with every other rate. Each comparison was then assigned a plus or minus, depending on whether they were directly or inversely correlated. All plus correlations were assembled in one list and all minus correlations wereassembled in a second list. Each individual entry in either list was therefore positively relatedto entries in its own list but inversely related to diseases in the opposite list. Most, but not all,of these correlations were statistically significant.
10. Campbell TC, Chen J, Brun T, et al. "China: from diseases of poverty to diseases of affluence. Policy implications of the epidemiological transition." Ecol. Food Nutr. 27 (1992): 133–144.
11. Chen J, Campbell TC, Li J, et al. Diet, life-style and mortality in China. A study of the characteristics of 65 Chinese counties. Oxford, UK; Ithaca, NY; Beijing, PRC: Oxford University Press;Cornell University Press; People's Medical Publishing House, 1990.
12. Lipid Research Clinics Program Epidemiology Committee. "Plasma lipid distributions in selected North American Population. The Lipid Research Clinics Program Prevalence Study."Circulation 60 (1979): 427–439.
13. Campbell TC, Parpia B, and Chen J. "Diet, lifestyle, and the etiology of coronary artery disease:The Cornell China Study." Am. J. Cardiol. 82 (1998): 18T-21T.
14. These data are for villages SA, LC and RA for women and SA, QC and NB for men, as seen in the monograph (Chen, et al. 1990)
15. Sirtori CR, Noseda G, and Descovich GC. "Studies on the use of a soybean protein diet forthe management of human hyperlipoproteinemias." In: M. J. Gibney and D. Kritchevsky(eds.), Current Topics in Nutrition and Disease, Volume 8: Animal and Vegetable Proteins in Lipid Metabolism and Atherosclerosis., pp. 135–148. New York, NY: Alan R. Liss, Inc., 1983.
16. Carroll KK. "Dietary proteins and amino acids - their effects on cholesterol metabolism." In:M. J. Gibney and D. Kritchevsky (eds.), Animal and Vegetable Proteins in Lipid Metabolism and Atherosclerosis, pp. 9–17. New York, NY: Alan R. Liss, Inc., 1983.
17. Terpstra AHM, Hermus RJJ, and West CE. "Dietary protein and cholesterol metabolism in rabbits and rats." In: M. J. Gibney and D. Kritchevsky (eds.), Animal and Vegetable Proteins in Lipid Metabolism and Athersclerosis, pp. 19–49. New York: Alan R. Liss, Inc., 1983.
18. Kritchevsky D, Tepper SA, Czarnecki SK, et al. "Atherogenicity of animal and vegetable protein. Influence of the lysine to arginine ratio." Atherosclerosis 41 (1982): 429–431.
19. Dietary fat can be expressed as percent of total weight of the diet or as percent of total calories.Most commentators and researchers express fat as percent of total calories because we primarily consume food to satisfy our need for calories, not our need for weight. I will do the same throughout this book.
20. National Research Council. Diet, Nutrition and Cancer. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1982.
21. United States Department of Health and Human Services. The Surgeon General's Report on Nutrition and Health. Washington, DC: Superintendant of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1988.
22. National Research Council, and Committee on Diet and Health. Diet and health: implications for reducing chronic disease risk. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1989.
23. Expert Panel. Food, nutrition and the prevention of cancer, a global perspective. Washington,DC: American Institute for Cancer Research/World Cancer Research Fund, 1997.
24. Exceptions include those foods artificially stripped of their fat, such as non-fat milk.
25. Armstrong D, and Doll R. "Environmental factors and cancer incidence and mortality in different countries, with special reference to dietary practices." Int. J. Cancer 15 (1975):617–631.
26. U.S. Senate. "Dietary goals for the United States, 2nd Edition." Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1977.
27. Committee on Diet Nutrition and Cancer. Diet, nutrition and cancer: directions for research.Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1983.
28. There also were a number of other policy statements and large human studies that were begun at about this time that were to receive much public discussion and that were founded and/or interpreted in relation to dietary fat and these diseases. These included the initiationof the U.S. Dietary Guidelines report series begun in 1980, the Harvard Nurses' Health Studyin 1984, the initial reports of the Framingham Heart Study in the 1960s, the Seven CountriesStudy of Ancel Keys, the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT) and others.
29. Carroll KK, Braden LM, Bell JA, et al. "Fat and cancer." Cancer 58 (1986): 1818–1825.
30. Drasar BS, and Irving D. "Environmental factors and cancer of the colon and breast." Br. J.Cancer 27 (1973): 167–172.
31. Haenszel W, and Kurihara M. "Studies of Japanese Migrants: mortality from cancer and other disease among Japanese and the United States." J Natl Cancer Inst 40 (1968): 43–68.
32. Higginson J, and Muir CS. "Epidemiology in Cancer." In: J. F. Holland and E. Frei (eds.),Cancer Medicine, pp. 241–306. Philadelphia, PA: Lea and Febiger, 1973.
33. The correlation of fat intake with animal protein intake is 84% for grams of fat consumed and 70% for fat as a percent of calories.376 T H E C H I N A S T U D Y
34. Kelsey JL, Gammon MD, and Esther MJ. "Reproductive factors and breast cancer." Epidemiol.Revs. 15 (1993): 36–47.
35. de Stavola BL, Wang DY, Allen DS, et al. "The association of height, weight, menstrual and reproductive events with breast cancer: results from two prospective studies on the island of Guernsey (United Kingdom)." Cancer Causes and Control 4 (1993): 331–340.
36. Rautalahti M, Albanes D, Virtamo J, et al. "Lifetime menstrual activityâ€”indicator of breast cancer risk." (1993): 17–25
37. It was not possible to statistically detect an association of blood hormone levels with breast cancer risk within this group of women because their blood samples were taken at random times of their menstrual cycles and breast cancer rates were so low, thus minimizing the abilityto detect such an association, even when real.
38. Key TJA, Chen J, Wang DY, et al. "Sex hormones in women in rural China and in Britain."Brit. J. Cancer 62 (1990): 631–636.
39. These biomarkers include plasma copper, urea nitrogen, estradiol, prolactin, testosterone and, inversely, sex hormone binding globulin, each of which has been known to be associated with animal protein intake from previous studies.
40. For the total dietary fiber (TDF), the averages for China and the U.S. were 33.3 and 11.1grams per day, respectively. The range of the county averages are 7.7–77.6 grams per day in China, compared with a range of 2.4–26.6 grams per day for the middle 90% of American males.
41. The correlation for plant protein was +0.53*** and for animal protein was +0.12.
42. In principle, using "cancer prevalence within families" as the outcome measurement more effectively controls for the various causes of cancer that associate with different kinds of cancer,thus permitting study of an isolated effect of the dietary factor.
43. Guo W, Li J, Blot WJ, et al. "Correlations of dietary intake and blood nutrient levels with esophageal cancer mortality in China." Nutr. Cancer 13 (1990): 121–127.
44. The full effects of these fat-soluble antioxidants can be demonstrated only when antioxidan tconcentrations are adjusted for the levels of LDL for individual subjects. This was not known at the time of the survey, thus provisions were not made for this adjustment.
45. Kneller RW, Guo W, Hsing AW, et al. "Risk factors for stomach cancer in sixty-five Chinese counties." Cancer Epi. Biomarkers Prev. 1 (1992): 113–118.
46. Information Plus. Nutrition: a key to good health. Wylie, TX: Information Plus, 1999.
47. Westman EC, Yancy WS, Edman JS, et al. "Carbohydrate Diet Program." Am. J. Med. 113(2002): 30–36.
48. Atkins RC. Dr. Atkins' New Diet Revolution. New York, NY: Avon Books, 1999.
49. Wright JD, Kennedy-Stephenson J, Wang CY, et al. "Trends in Intake of Energy and Macronutrientsâ€”United States, 1971–2000." Morbidity and mortality weekly report 53 (February 6,2004): 80–82.
50. Noakes M, and Clifton PM. "Weight loss and plasma lipids." Curr. Opin. Lipidol. 11 (2000):65–70.
51. Bilsborough SA, and Crowe TC. "Low-carbohydrate diets: what are the potential short- and long-term health implications?" Asia Pac. J. Clin. Nutr. 12 (2003): 396–404.
52. Stevens A, Robinson DP, Turpin J, et al. "Sudden cardiac death of an adolescent during dieting." South. Med. J. 95 (2002): 1047–1049.
53. Patty A. "Low-carb fad claims teen's life - Star diet blamed in death." The Daily Telegraph(Sidney, Australia) November 2, 2002: 10.
54. Atkins, 1999. Page 275.
55. Atkins claims that an antioxidant cocktail can protect against heart disease, cancer and aging,a claim refuted by several large trials recently completed (see chapter 11).
56. Atkins, 1999. Page 103.
57. Bone J. "Diet doctor Atkins 'obese', had heart problems: coroner: Widow angrily denies that opponents' claims that heart condition caused by controversial diet." Ottawa Citizen February 11, 2004: A11.
58. Campbell TC. "Energy balance: interpretation of data from rural China." Toxicological Sciences 52 (1999): 87–94.
59. Horio F, Youngman LD, Bell RC, et al. "Thermogenesis, low-protein diets, and decreased development of AFB1-induced preneoplastic foci in rat liver." Nutr. Cancer 16 (1991): 31–41.
60. Krieger E, Youngman LD, and Campbell TC. "The modulation of aflatoxin (AFB1) induced preneoplastic lesions by dietary protein and voluntary exercise in Fischer 344 rats." FASEB J.2 (1988): 3304 Abs.
61. The cited associations of total animal and plant protein intakes are taken from manuscript under review.62. Campbell TC, Chen J, Liu C, et al. "Non-association of aflatoxin with primary liver cancer ina cross-sectional ecologic survey in the People's Republic of China." Cancer Res. 50 (1990):6882–6893.